Compilations of Radiographic Positioning

Friday, February 13, 2015

Radiographic Positioning : Radiography

The radiographic positioning terminology used by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologist (ARRT) and Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologist (CAMRT) are constantly the same with the following four common
terminology used in radiology:

  • Projection
  • Position
  • View
  • Method
But the only difference is that the term view is commonly used in Canada for some projections and positions.

What is Position?

The word position is used in two means in radiolography. One is to classify the whole posture of the patient or the over-all body position. It can be called to patient for example as upright, seated, or supine. The former term of position is use to specify the placement of the body part in relative to the radiographic table or in image receptor during radiographic procedure. The radiographic position, may be a right lateral, left anterior oblique, or other position depending on the examination and anatomy of concern. Through radiography, the whole body positions are united with radiographic positions to produce the appropriate image. For clarification of the positioning for an examination, it is frequently necessary to include references to both because a particular radiographic position such as right lateral can be achieved in several general body positions like upright, supine, lateral recumbent and etc. with differing image outcomes. Specific description of general body positions and radiographic positions follow.

What is Projection?

The term projection is distinct as the route of the central ray as it exits the x-ray tube and goes over the patient to the image receptor. Furthermost projections are defined by the entry and exit points in the body and are based on the anatomic position. AP projection for instance, are achieved when the central ray enters anywhere in the front or anterior surface of the body and exits the back or posterior. Nevertheless of which body position where patient in supine, upright, prone, and others, if the central ray pass in the anterior body surface and exits the posterior body surface the projection is called an AP projection.

Projections can also be called by the relationship made between the central ray and the body as the CR crosses through the entire body or body part like for example, the axial tangential projection.
  • AP and PA Projections
  • Axial Projection
  • Tangential Projection
  • Lateral Projection
  • Oblique Projection
For additional clarification, projection may be defined by the entrance and exit points and by the central relationship to the body at the same time. In PA Axial projection for example, the central ray enters the posterior body surface and exits the anterior body surface following an axial or angled trajectory relative to the entire body or body part. Axiolateral projections also use an angulation of the central ray, but the ray enters and exits through lateral surface of the entire body or body part.

List of Radiographic Examinations and Positioning

MRI Patient Positioning

Correct patient positioning, placement of patient within the coil and proper immobilization techniques are important factors in MRI patient positioning. These are describe relatively to the light system as follow:
  • The longitudinal alignment light refers to the light running parallel to the bore of the magnet in the Z axis.
  • Horizontal Alignment light refers to the light that runs from left to right of the bore of the magnet in the X axis.
  • The Vertical alignment light refers to the light that runs from the top to the bottom of the magnet in the Y axis

The following procedure are examined with the patient placed head first in the magnet:

MRI Positioning
MRI Laser Positioning
  • Head and Neck
  • Chest
  • Cervical Thoracic and Whole Spine
  • Abdomen – in this examination areas superior to the iliac crest are included.
  • Shoulders and UpperLimb 

Anatomical Regions are examined with the patient placed Feet first in the Magnet.

  • Pelvis
  • Hips
  • Lower Limbs
  • Knee

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