Interventional Radiology (IR or VIR)

Tuesday, February 10, 2015

 Interventional Radiology (IR or VIR)

It is also known as the surgical radiology. It is an independent medical specialty, that was a sub-specialty of radiology till recently, and uses minimally invasive image guided procedures to diagnose and treat diseases in nearly each organ system. The thought behind interventional radiology is to diagnose and treat using the least invasive techniques that is presently offered, so as to reduce risk and improve the health of the patients.
In previous years, myelography and venograms a interventional radiology imaging procedure, were considered as special procedures. Recently the area of therapeutic angiographic intervention has undergone rapid development. We now have suites of x-ray rooms and complex equipment that have been specially designed on interventional radiology.

Interventtional Radiology
Interventional Radiology Procedure 3D

Historical Events:

Interventional radiologic procedures began in the 1930’s with angiography. Needles and contrast media were used to enter and highlight an artery. In the early 1960’s Masin Jones pioneered transbrachial selective coronary angiography which is done by entering selected coronary arteries through an artery of the arm. A transfemoral Angiography ( which is entering an artery in the thigh) of selective visceral, heart, and head arteries was developed. Melvin Judkins introduced coronary angiography, and Charles Dotter introduced visceral angiography.

Radiologic Interventional Procedures: Therapeutic and Diagnostic Imaging

Angiography is refers to the opacification of vessels by injection of contrast media. Angioplasty, thrombolysis, embolization, vascular stents, and biopsy are other example of Interventional therapeutic Procedures conducted in and through vessels. A list of imaging and interventional procedure likely to be conducted in an interventional radilogic suite.
  • Angiography – for stent placement
  • Aortography – for embolization
  • Arteriography – Intravascular stent
  • Cardiac catheterization – Thrombolysis
  • Myelography -  Balloon angioplasty
  • Venography -  Atherectomy and Electrophysiology

Required Suite of Room:

Unlike radiography and fluoroscopy, interventional radiology requires a suite of rooms. The room itself should not be less than 20 ft along any wall and not less than 500ft squared. This room size is required to accommodate the extend of equipments required and the large number of people involved in most procedures. There are atleast three means of access. One is Patient access should be through a door wide enough to accommodate a stretcher. Two is an access to central room, this does not normally require a doo, and an open passageway is adequate. The room should maintain a clean and sterile environment. The control room should be large, perhaps 100 ft squared, and this room should communicate directly with the viewing areas.

Contrast Media Used in Inventional Radiography:

Vessels under investigation in angiography are injected with radiopaque contrast media. Initially, ionic iodine compounds have been used for contrast injections; however, non ionic contrast media have largely replaced the ionic agents. Because of their low concentration of ions (low osmolality), physiologic problems and adverse reactions are reduced for a patient undergoing angiographic injection


X-ray Equipment in Interventional Radiography

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