X-ray Imaging Systems

Thursday, February 12, 2015

Its function is to provide a controlled flow of electrons intense enough to produce an x-ray beam appropriate for imaging. There are many different types of x-ray imaging systems and are usually identified according to either the energy of the x-rays they produce or the purpose for which those x-rays are intended. Regardless of its design, every x-ray machines has 3 principal parts: The x-ray tube, The Operating Console, and The High Voltage Generators. In some type of machines such as dental and portable machines, these 3 componets are housed compactly.

X-ray machine
Coustesy of Siemens: X-ray Imaging Systems

The Medical X-ray Machine Systems

The Medical X-ray machine Imaging Systems come in many different shapes and sizes. The Medical x-ray Machine systems are usually operated at voltages of 25 to 150 kVp and has a tube currents of 100 to 1200 mA.

The Main Components of X-ray Imaging System:



The X-ray Tube

The x-ray tube is a component of the x-ray imaging systems rarely seen by the radiologic technologist. It is contained in a protective housing, and therefore is inaccessible. The x-ray tube has two primary parts: the cathode and the anode. Each of these is an electrode, and any tube with two electrodes is a diode and the x-ray tube is a special type of diode.

The External Structure of the X-ray Tube
The Internal Components of X-ray Tube (Cathode Side)
The Internal Components of X-ray Tube (Anode Side)
X-ray Tube Failures
Parts of X-ray Tube [link]

The Operating Console

This is the part of x-ray imaging system most familiar to the radiologic technologist because it allow us to control the x-ray tube current and voltage so that the useful x-ray beam is of proper QUANTITY (the number of x-rays or the intensity of the x-ray beam and expressed in milliroentgens [mR] or milliroentgens/milliampere-seconds [mR/mAs] ) and QUALITY (refers to the penetrability of the x-ray beam and expressed in kilovolt peak [kVp] or more precisely called the half value layer.) Operating consoles has an on / off control and controls to select kVp, mA, and time or mAs. Furthermore, operating consoles usually provides for control of line compensation, kVp, mA and exposure time. Meters are provided for monitoring kVp, mA and exposure time. In modern consoles that incorporate AEC have a separated controls for mAs. The AEC is also found in operating console.

Digital Operating Consoles

Most Operating Consoles are based on computer technology. Controls and Meters are digital, and techniques are selected with touch screen. Numerical technique selection is sometimes replaced by icons indicating body part, size and shape. Many of the features are automatic, but the radiologic technologist must know their purpose and proper use.

Safety Features Operating Consoles for Radiologic Technologist:

All the electric circuits connecting the meters and controls on the operating console are at low voltage to minimize the possibility of hazardous shock. a simplified wiring connections for a typical operating is installed. Most operating consoles are computer based technology. Controls and meters are digital, and techniques are selected with a touch screen. Numerical techiques selection is sometimes replaced by icons indicating body part, size, and shape. Many of the features are automatic, but the radiologic technologist must know their puppose and proper use.

High Voltage Generator

The High Voltage Generator of an x-ray machine is responsible for increasing the output voltage from the auto transformer to the kVp necessary for x-ray production. On High Voltage generator, some heat is generated in the high voltage section and is conducted to oil. The oil is used primarily for electrical insulation. The high-voltage generator may be housed in an equipment cabinet positioned against a wall, and it is always close to the x-ray tube, usually in the examination room. A few instalations take advantage of false ceilings and place these generators out of sigh above the examination room. For newer generator designs that use high-frequency circuits require even less space in the examination room.

3 Way of High Voltage Generator in providing Power to X-ray Tube [link]

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