Thoracic and Cervical Spine Injury

Sunday, March 30, 2014

cervical spine fractures Thoracic Spine and Cervical Spine Injuries | Pathologic Indications in Radiology

The list of pathology indications and spine injuries the all radiologic technicians must be familiar with:

Clay Shoveler's Fracture

Fracture of cervical spine which results from hyperflexion of the neck, and results in avulsion fractures on the spinous process of C6 to T1 of thoracic spine. Projection that best demonstrate is on lateral cervical spine x-ray.

Compression Fracture

Usually associated with osteoporosis, this is often involves collapse of the vertibral body, which results from flexion or axial loading, usually in thoracic and lumbar part region. Severe Kyposis and other diseases are sometimes the reason of compression fracture. The block shape vertebral body change its shape to wedge caused by colapse of anterior edge. This increases kyphosis and may compromise respiratory and heart function. It also frequently results in spinal cord injury. This compression fracture are best demonstrated radiographically on lateral spine x-ray of the affected area/region of the spine.

Hangman's Fracture

Fracture are extended to the pedicles of C2 with or without subluxation (complete or partial dislocation) of C2 along C3. The cervical fracture happens when the neck is forced to extreme hyperextension. If the patient is alive on this fracture he/she may not be stable because the intact dens is pressed posteriorly against the brain stem. Best demonstration of this fracture is a lateral cervical spine x-ray and clearly viewed the anterior displacement of C2 a characteristic of a hangsman's fracture.

Jefferson Fracture

A type of comminuted fracture (crushed at site area of impact) occurs as a result of axial loading, such as is produced by landing on one's head or arbruptly on one's feet. The anterior (front) and posterior (back) arches of C1 are fractured as the skull slams on the ring. To best demonstrate Jefferson Fracture a projection of AP open mouth and lateral cervical spine x-ray.

Odontoid Fracture

A fracture that involves the dens and can extend into the lateral masses or aches of vertebral spine C1. Demonstration and any disruption of the arches of C1 is best viewed on an AP open mouth projection.

Teardrop Burst Fracture

A fracture of combined compression with hyperflexion in the cervical area. The vertebral body is comminuted with triangular fragments avulsed from the anteroinferior border and fragments from the posterior vertebral body displaced in the spinal canal. Neurologic damage (usually quadriplegia) is a high probability. Based on the extend of the fracture and possible spinal cord involvement, a CT scan usually is indicated once a baseline lateral an AP projection of the cervical spine has been taken.

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