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AP PROJECTION - ERECT POSITION : ABDOMEN

Pathology Demonstrated:Abnormal masses, air fluid levels, and accumulations of intraperitoneal air under diaphragm are demonstrated.
Perform erect radiograph first if patient comes to department ambulatory or in wheelchair in an erect position.

Technical Factors:
IR size - 35 x 43cm (14 x 17 inches), lengthwise
Moving or stationary grid (use erect markers)
70 to 80 kV range

Marker:
Include erect marker on IR.

Shielding:

Used gonadal shield on males. An adjustable freestanding mobile shield can be used as for chests.


AP Projection Abdomen (Erect)

Patient Position:

Upright, legs slightly spread, back against table or grid device (see note below for weak or unsteady patients)
Arms at sides away from body
Midsagittal plane of the body centered to midline of the table or erect Bucky

Part Position:

Do not rotate pelvis or shoulders.
Adjust height of IR so the center is approximately 2 inches (5cm ) above iliac crest (to include diaphragm), which for the average patient will place the top of the IR approximately at the level of the axilla.

Central Ray:
CR horizontal, to center of IR
Minimum SID of 40inches (100cm)

Collimation:
Collimate closely on all four sides; do NOT cut off upper abdomen.

Respiration:
Exposure should be made at end of expiration.

Note:
Patient should be upright a minimum of 5 minutes, but 10 to 20 minutes is desirable, if possible, before exposure for visualizing small amounts of intraperitoneal air. If a patient is too weak to maintain an erect position, a lateral decubitus should be taken. For hypersthenic patients, two crosswise IRs may be required to include the entire abdomen.